There's also the trouble that even if you figure it out once, you can still forget it again. Although, it tends to come easier every subsequent time.
Thankfully, at least in some countries, the majority of people probably wouldn't kill even if there were no laws against it. However, for many that understanding somehow doesn't extend towards the "smaller" unethical choices that cannot be forbidden by law in practise.
It took me a long time to get an idea of what the word refers to. One particular source of trouble is that it gets used by so many people who don't actually understand it's meaning that the signal/noise ratio is just horrible. But in a way, you could say that ego is that mess of unconscious reacting and helpless behaviour. More to the point, ego is the self-identification with such behaviour and/or it's causes.
There's no single "the core problem". There are many and they're subtly different for different people even if they're very similar sometimes. Although, I suppose they all share the similarity that they're essentially beliefs about yourself or your abilities.
I'm not quite sure where you got the idea that it has to be external. Anyway, a lot of debugging can be done virtually. I don't think it makes much of a difference whether it's an external virtual or internal virtual. However, internal virtual requires a certain level of understanding to work properly. Otherwise you're just running an imperfect simulation that isn't really useful for learning about the "real" thing.
Yes, I see this as the single most important thing that can be done to improve the world. That is, to help other people learn to debug themselves better.
I wouldn't say we're programmed with bugs. Most of them are learned from our parents and other people we're involved with when we grow up. It's an iterative process where each generation begins with a stage very close to what their parents have. However, the internet is has made a big change in how this works. Suddenly there's now a much larger pool of people to learn from, which means that people who're open to learning and managed to avoid the traps, are now advancing by leaps and bounds. However, the flip side is that the people who fell into the traps (that is, bugs that looked desirable to them for whatever reason) are stuck.
I don't think it makes sense to try to classify certain impulses as coming from the true self. There are really just two kinds of impulses. Those that help you and/or others and those that don't. Impulses arise from the generalized problem solver system that we call the subconscious according to your goals and your model (as in, beliefs) of the world. Including a model of yourself in the world.
Because the mind is inherently a less complex system than the world, the model can never be perfect. Hence, impulses will sometimes be unhelpful or even downright harmful. The only thing you can do about it, is to accept it and improve the model when you see errors, so you don't repeat the same errors for the rest of your life.
The goals are also inevitably formed from the model, so they too might be buggy in themselves.
Well, in a way it is natural, but probably not in the sense the word is usually used. I mean, we're the first species on Earth capable of reprogramming itself. And no, I don't mean through technology. Technology definitely helps with that, but what I mean with reprogramming is that we are flexible enough to alter most of our instinctive behavior. However, we didn't get to start with the knowledge of what's the best algorithm to reprogram ourselves. We've had to learn to do that by trial and error. We're perhaps the first generation ever to actually have access to every good and bad idea out there.
It doesn't take many bad ideas applied to the learning process to get badly stuck. So, I consider myself lucky that I've managed to learn how to debug myself properly. Others weren't as lucky. Some are completely stuck and it's up to those who were lucky to figure out how to help them out of that bind.